Category: Technology

05 Nov 2020
How Banks and Credit Unions Can Maintain Business Continuity to Achieve Effective IT Management

How Banks and Credit Unions Can Maintain Business Continuity to Achieve Effective IT Management

How Banks and Credit Unions Can Maintain Business Continuity to Achieve Effective IT Management

Banks and credit unions of all sizes experience some level of turnover or unexpected absence that can affect internal positions. When the IT administrator role is impacted, it can cause the most disruption, especially for smaller community institutions, as many have limited resources and may rely on only one employee in the role. When an IT administrator leaves, he or she takes with them the institutional knowledge and expertise gained through working with the FI’s unique IT infrastructure and network management processes. To lessen the impact, it’s up to the institution to effectively build continuity into its IT strategy and pay attention to the strategic decisions being made by the IT team.

In a recent Safe Systems webinar, we discussed the importance of continuity in IT and ensuring effective management of the network through transition periods. In this blog post, we highlight three key areas of focus to achieve continuity and keep the institution operating efficiently.

1. Strategic Decisions

We have seen financial institutions fall victim to the “power of one”, where the IT admin has all the knowledge and authority to make IT strategic decisions alone. Then when they leave, the rest of the institution doesn’t have a clear view of what’s been done to the network and how to properly maintain it.

Some IT admins prefer to try new technologies and add more automation to the institution’s processes. While others might stick to their comfort zone and not push for new IT tools. While it’s important to provide an appropriate level of autonomy to the IT admin, it is critical to also have a system of checks and balances in place and to examine the benefits and consequences of these decisions closely to ensure the institution has the right tools to succeed .

2. Strategic Management

For IT personnel to be successful, it is important to outline what your institution wants the IT admin to accomplish and let them know what success will look like when they achieve these goals. Some key questions to consider include: What are the desired outcomes you’re expecting from IT? Is the goal to spend their time and budget on efficiency projects, redundancy projects, or security projects? In other words, what is your tolerance for downtime, security risks, or ineffective and slower processes? How will these goals be measured?

Once these expectations are established, the IT admin should be given the freedom to do what they need to do to achieve the institution’s goals but there should also be a clear chain of command to provide oversight and to evaluate their work.

You do not want to let an employee’s expertise (or lack thereof) impact your technology or for the institution’s security to be affected negatively. Define clear objectives for your IT personnel, whether that’s uptime, recovery time objectives (RTOs), redundancy, budgeting, or specific controls you’d like to have in place to ensure the institution is operating securely.

3. Strategic Plan

Make sure the expectations and objectives you set for IT personnel align with your strategic plan. According to the Federal Financial Institution Examination Council (FFIEC), “strategic IT planning should address long-term goals and the allocation of IT resources to achieve them. Strategic IT planning focuses on a three- to five-year horizon and helps ensure that the institution’s technology plans are consistent and aligned with the institution’s business plan. Effective strategic IT planning can ensure the delivery of IT services that balance cost and efficiency while enabling the business units to meet the competitive demands of the marketplace. The IT strategic plan should address the budget, periodic board reporting, and the status of risk management controls.”

When discussing the strategic plan with management, it’s important to identify the key areas of improvement and provide information on price, level of risk, and what exactly the institution is trying to accomplish. Sometimes having an outside perspective can help push key initiatives along and get them into the budget for the year ahead.

To learn more, download the recording of our webinar, “Understanding The Lifecycle of the IT Administrator: Ensure Effective Management of Your Network.”

22 Oct 2020
Why Safe Systems Made the Switch from Java to Amazon Corretto for Network Management

Why Safe Systems Made the Switch from Java to Amazon Corretto for Network Management

Why Safe Systems Made the Switch from Java to Amazon Corretto for Network Management

Java is a programming language and computing platform first released by Sun Microsystems in 1995. On April 16, 2019, Oracle (who owns Java and its development) changed its client-based Java model from free to fee-based. This created a huge issue in the marketplace because so many businesses, consumers, applications used Java and based their code off of Java. So now, to get Oracle’s version of Java requires a fee per device. Many companies are facing an update and licensing management issue as they are forced to track who in their organization has Java; who needs it; and whether there are enough licenses. At this point, they must update only the computers who have purchased licenses.

It seemed like overnight, supporting and updating Java went from “not a big deal” to a headache for a lot of IT people. Luckily several companies saw the issue and began creating their own Java client based on the open source code that was released for Java. Several major players like IBM, Amazon, and even Oracle started creating their own versions of Java. Safe Systems researched which of these versions would be supported by the core providers and software vendors in the financial industry, and Amazon Corretto emerged as a top choice because it is free to use and is backed by a reputable company.

What’s Next?

At the end of December 2020, Safe Systems has decided to no longer support the fee-based version Oracle offers of Java as we now have no way to confirm if a license has been purchased or not. Instead, we have worked with financial institutions and have adopted Amazon Corretto as a supportable alternative to the Oracle fee-based version. Safe Systems will support, update, and report on Amazon Corretto as part of our third-party patching program with NetComply™.

Safe Systems did not make this decision lightly. We worked with multiple institutions using various banking applications to ensure that this could be a widely accepted switch in the industry. We spent hundreds of man hours testing and implementing the appropriate changes to ensure this is a smooth transition. We are happy to say that we can successfully support Amazon Corretto as a key application that in turn supports your critical banking applications.

NetComply is built around monitoring, alerting, automation, and supporting your machines, but it is also about keeping key applications fully patched so that your network is as secure as possible. We encourage each of you to confirm all of your applications work with Amazon Corretto before switching. If they do, there is nothing left to do but sit back and let NetComply take it from there.

01 Oct 2020
After a Year Unlike Any Other, What Community Banks and Credit Unions Should Budget for in 2021

After a Year Unlike Any Other, What Community Banks and Credit Unions Should Budget for in 2021

After a Year Unlike Any Other, What Community Banks and Credit Unions Should Budget for in 2021

In 2020 we’ve learned a lot about ourselves, and whether the general population realizes it or not, they have learned a lot about something often relegated just to banking: Risk Tolerance. And with that in mind, here are seven key items that your institution should consider while budgeting for 2021:

1. Laptops

Supply is down, demand is up, so from a pricing standpoint, you are unlikely to find great deals on laptops, but their portability has been a key component to companies and employees being successful during the pandemic. Remote work is a great option for employees who do not need face-to-face interactions with customers or members, but not every department can work successfully outside of the main office or branch.

When planning for next year, each position in the institution needs to be evaluated, if it hasn’t already, to determine the ability and effectiveness of remote working. When possible, consider having remote employees use a company laptop going forward. In a recent Safe Systems survey of community financial institutions, 1/3 of respondents have already decided that they will be purchasing more laptops this year.

2. Hardware Management Software

How many of the controls you use to secure your institution’s devices require the device to physically be in the office? As the work environment changes and more people make the shift to working from home offices, your current controls need to be evaluated to ensure they work just as effectively outside of the branch. For years, the push for “agentless” controls has been popular, but many of these controls assumed the office was a well-defined building where all devices used the financial institution’s network. As the home office becomes the new standard for many banks and credit unions, the need for agent-based controls is greater than ever. Controls/security measures are no longer effective if they require the device to be on premise.

3. Business Continuity Plan (BCP) Update

Having an updated pandemic plan as part of your BCP is still likely a need for many institutions. Because it has been more than a century since a full-scale pandemic hit the U.S., many of the assumptions and concepts that pandemic plans were based on have proven to be incorrect. For instance, many plans outlined operational changes based on only 50% staff for just a week or two. Much of the concern before 2020 was making sure staff members were properly cross trained in the event key individuals were unavailable for days or perhaps a few weeks. While this is still very important, it represents only a tiny portion of truly being ready for a pandemic.

Pandemic plans often did not address managing operations for a long duration or important measures like social distancing, security measures, consumer access, etc. Financial institutions must take a hard look at key lessons learned so far during the COVID-19 pandemic and update their plans accordingly.

4. Moving to the Cloud

Recognizing that having employees working outside of the office is a real possibility moving forward, investing in new servers and putting them in offices is becoming an antiquated idea. The cloud provides a level of redundancy, scalability, and accessibility that cannot be matched by buying a single server. It also means no one has to be in the office to manage the infrastructure. As servers need to be replaced, banks and credit unions should seriously consider the process of moving to the cloud.

5. Client Experience

One question every institution should be asking itself is: “how can we better enhance the customer experience?” While IT is usually seen as a cost center, the events of the past year may have opened a door for IT to step up and offer solutions that directly affect the customer experience. The pandemic has forced many people, some maybe for the first time, to adopt digital banking solutions. If IT can offer specific tools and/or insight into how to improve the customer experience, this may be the opening that IT has hoped for to secure a “seat at the table” among their institution’s leadership.

6. Cybersecurity

Garmin, the GPS and active wear company, reportedly paid $10 million in 2020 to counter a ransomware attack. Their customers were without the services for over a week while Garmin’s data was held hostage. All of the information about their case is not available yet, but the sad reality is that they likely could have prevented the entire situation with just a few technology solutions and security settings being implemented correctly. The threat to your data is as real today as it ever has been. Be sure to have a conversation with a security company you trust to ensure that even if you are the target of a ransomware attack, it won’t be able to hurt your business long-term. Invest in cybersecurity now, so that your institution won’t end up paying much more later.

Consider this: Cyber-attacks are 300 times more likely to hit financial services firms than other companies, according to a recent Boston Consulting Group report, and cyber-attacks continue to climb each year, with the global cybersecurity market expected to eclipse $300 billion by 2024, according to Global Insights.

Unfortunately spend and layers of protection most likely need to increase annually to address this issue.

  • Employee training – to ensure adequate and effective
  • Perimeter protection – to ensure the appropriate layers are enabled and all traffic is being handled correctly including encrypted traffic
  • Advance threat protection and logging – to be able to identify how, if at all, malware or an intrusion created an incident
  • Backup and data redundancy – to ensure ransomware can’t wipe out your data

Per Computer Services, Inc (CSI), 59% of financial institutions will increase spending for cybersecurity this year.

7. ISO

With the increase in responsibilities of the Information Security Officer and the focus on separation/segregation of duties, there has been an uptick in the number of institutions looking for virtual ISO (VISO)-type solutions. These solutions can help by taking some level of burden off of internal resources, provide staff with templates or toolsets when needed, and oversight to ensure nothing is falling through the cracks.

For 2021, there are a lot of things to consider. One focus should be to look at the changes your institution had to make because of the pandemic and what changes you should consider making in the future to improve cybersecurity, information security, and as always, your customers’ and members’ experience.

20 Aug 2020
Banking Bits and Bytes

What You Need to Know About Securing Exchange Online

What You Need to Know About Securing Azure AD

Technical Level: Beginner/Intermediate
TLDR: Microsoft recently released the GA version of their Exchange Online V2 module for PowerShell. In order to configure some of the more advanced settings for Exchange Online, familiarity with PowerShell is going to be required. Knowing how to store variables, run commands, and connect to Exchange Online will be the bare minimum to get started.

Exchange Online Security

Exchange online security is another one of those huge areas that can be difficult to cover in just one sitting. Topics here can range from making sure offboarded employees cannot sign in, to disabling protocols per user, or preventing client access for the entire organization based on protocol, user, or public IP, and that is just the start of it. Our future posts will go into some of the more intricate details of securing Exchange Online but before we can do that, we need to make sure everyone is familiar with PowerShell (PS) at a base level.

The reason for this is three-fold. First, some information can only be gathered via PS. Second, some settings can only be configured via PS. Third, when you need to affect users at a large scale, you will need PS for some settings (unless you like clicking through the Exchange Admin Center a million times).

Practical PowerShell Basics

Disclaimer: We aren’t going to go over the finer details of the “internal machinations” of PS. Our goal here is practical use of PS for administration of Exchange Online. The terminology, definitions, and examples are all geared toward this purpose with an intended audience being those beginning to use PS.

Let’s go ahead and set the stage by opening PS and checking to see what our version is. You can do this by running the following command:


When you run the command, you will see your PS version information displayed on the screen:

Securing Exchange - Code Example

These results introduce us to a couple of core concepts: variables, shortcuts (aka Aliases), and command logic.


Variables are just another name for a container in PS. Think of a basket. You can place any number of objects, like say bread, cheese, and wine, into a basket and go have a picnic. You won’t have a picnic if you are working in PS but it can be just as fun!

With the example above, $PSVersionTable is our basket and it holds one object, a Hashtable. That Hashtable has Key/Value pairs that equate to what was displayed on screen. Just like a basket can hold multiple items, so too can a variable hold multiple objects. Let’s go ahead and try it out.

Note: The $ is what designates the start of a variable name and what ends that designation is a space. In the example above, we end the designation with a carriage return.
Run the following command:

$Basket = “Bread”, ”Cheese”, ”Wine”

Your results should look like this:

Securing Exchange - Code Example

What we have done here is create a variable named Basket and assigned it a set of string objects where a string is a set of characters. In other words, we stored those objects in the Basket container. The next command should look familiar. By typing the variable name with a $ in front of it, we tell PS to show us what the contents of the container are.

Note: Variable assignments will get much more complex from here on out and so will our use cases for variables. However, understanding how they fundamentally function is the first piece of this puzzle.

With both commands completed, we are ready to venture into some of the shortcuts available within PS and wouldn’t you know it, there is already some mastery of this topic, so congratulations!

Shortcuts (Aliases)

To introduce shortcuts properly, realize that all the commands we have run so far have been cut short from their original iterations. For example, if we wanted to do the same exact variable assignment for a variable named Basket2 and then show what the values of that variable are, this is what the long-form approach would look like:

New-Variable -Name "Basket2" -Value "Bread", "Cheese", "Wine"
Get-Variable -Name “Basket2”

Your results will look like this:

Securing Exchange - Code Example

Notice that the results from the Get-Variable command do not match what we get if we were just to show the variable by running $Basket2. This is because what is returned by the Get-Variable command is the variable, not the contents of that container. In other words, it is like picking up the entire basket, filled with items. While you can “see” inside the basket (the value column pictured above), to actually access the items inside you need to “open” the basket.

We will open the basket with the use of another core shortcut concept called piping. When we pipe in PS, we take all the results of a command and feed them into another command. For example, let’s run the following code to get the values of the Basket2 variable from the Get-Variable command:

Note: The | character is called a pipe. You can type a pipe by holding down Shift and pushing the Backslash button (usually found above the enter/carriage return key on a QWERTY keyboard).

Get-Variable -Name “Basket2” | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Value

The results of the command will now show the contents of Basket2:

Securing Exchange - Code Example

This brings us to the last topic for this post, command logic.

Command Logic

Command or script logic is the flow of the PS commands throughout a PS session. At a high level, command logic is read from top to bottom and left to right. More intricate scripts can get more ambiguous as preset groupings of commands, called functions, allow script logic to be reused throughout a script. For now, we can focus on how command logic can be used to pair multiple commands together to achieve desired results.

We mentioned earlier that the pipe command is a shortcut. So how else can we show the results of our Get-Variable command (“open” the basket) without the pipe? We could run the following commands:

foreach($picnicItem in $(Get-Variable -Name "Basket2").Value) { Write-Host $picnicItem}

Note: There is a bit of redundancy here since we started off with a variable assignment and now are having to do some variable assignments for each returned result. This is just an example of how else to open a container. The shortcuts exist for a reason, use them!

The results of the command will show that the output now matches what was previously generated from our other commands:

Securing Exchange - Code Example

From left to right, there are a couple of new concepts that need to be explained. First, is the concept of a foreach statement. The foreach statement is a templated function in PS that allows the iteration of the objects in a container, one at a time. The basic structure is as follows:

Foreach("New Variable" in "Existing Variable"){ "Command logic to run" }

Like all variable assignments, the names of new variables are entirely up to the creator. will be used throughout the command logic as a representative item from .

Note: In the logic above, wrapping our command logic in $() lets PS know that we expect it to evaluate every command contained within and use that output as our . We add on the .Value because we need to access the individual values of the as a collective set.

For the script above, if we translate the code to layman’s terms, what we are saying is as follows: For each picnic item in the basket, tell me what that item is.

When PS is handling the command logic, it follows those orders exactly. First it considers the foreach() parameters and grabs the first item in the basket and stores that item in the picnicItem variable. In this case it is “Bread”. Then PS looks at the command logic and sees the request to write the value of the variable onto the console, so it displays Bread on the console.

After the command logic is completely evaluated, PS will then take it from the top again, but this time will grab the next item from the basket, in this case “Cheese” and store it in picnicItem. Then PS will evaluate the command logic, which states to write the value of the object onto the console, so it displays Cheese on the console.

PS will continue to iterate through all the items in the basket until no more items are left and then the command’s run has ended. To start winding down, we are going to go over a little bit of a more complex assignment scenario. So far, we have kept things simple and manually assigned some strings to a variable but as we progress, the assignments are usually dynamically populated from the results of commands, so we need to get used to doing that. For example, if we wanted to store the objects representing all the running processes on our current machine, we could do an assignment variable like this:

$Processes = Get-Process

We could then manipulate the objects in that variable any way we see fit. For example, to show only the processes named chrome, we can pipe the results of the object to a Where-Object command that we can use for filtering:

$Processes | where-object {$_.ProcessName -eq “chrome”}

Securing Exchange - Code Example

Remember that when piping, the functional equivalent is a foreach statement. In this case, $_ is akin to the assignment of an iteration and we are accessing the ProcessName property.


We can only have so much fun in a day with PS before we start to lose focus, so this is a good stopping point. We went over variables, how to assign values to them, how to use shortcuts to cut down on our work, and how command logic is structured. Stay tuned for more PowerShell Basics as we dive into connecting to Exchange Online and using what we have learned to administer users and settings.

Microsoft Source:
Exchange Online V2 Module:

18 Aug 2020
Banking Bits and Bytes

What You Need to Know About Securing Azure AD

What You Need to Know About Securing Azure AD

Technical Level: Beginner
TLDR: Microsoft has decommissioned Baseline Conditional Access Policies and has replaced them with the new Security Defaults as of the end of February 2020. If you have been using Baseline Conditional Access Policies, Microsoft advises that you move to the new Security Defaults policy or to custom Conditional Access Policies.

Azure AD Security

Security within Azure is a huge topic covering a range of services offered by Microsoft. Everything from password protection, to data protection, to device protection, the list goes on and on. Our future posts will go into what you could be doing to protect your Azure instance. For this post though, we are going to go over what you can (and arguably should) be doing at a minimum to secure your Azure instance.

First, we will go over what the current system is and then what the new system will be.

Baseline Conditional Access Policies

Microsoft has recognized that customers of all licensing levels have security concerns. To help their customers, they released these free Baseline Conditional Access Policies. With this system, Microsoft basically said, here are some Conditional Access Policies that you don’t need to pay for that are going to help protect your Azure instance. There are four individual policies covering four important security vectors:

  • MFA for Admins
  • MFA for All Users
  • Legacy Authentication Block
  • MFA for Service Management

As you can tell by their names, the set of policies are largely focused around Multifactor Authentication. A recent blog by Melanie Maynes, Senior Product Marketing Manager, Microsoft Security, states over 99.9 percent of account compromise attacks can be blocked with MFA.

The remaining policy, governing Legacy Authentication, is also indirectly related to MFA in that the protocols that are used for Legacy Authentication (POP, IMAP, older Office desktop clients) can also be used to bypass MFA. The policies just don’t have the capability of utilizing more than a single factor for authentication, so it doesn’t provide as much security if you enable MFA for your users but then also allow them (or a bad actor) to bypass MFA with Legacy Authentication protocols.

What you should know about Baseline Conditional Access Policies is that the set of four policies can be enabled individually, independent from each other. This is important because you cannot modify the policies. If your organization has a use case for a single user, or small set of users, that needs a Legacy Authentication protocol you can’t just add exclusions like you would to a normal Conditional Access Policy. Instead you would have to leave the entire Baseline Conditional Access Policy disabled. Obviously, you would need to weigh the consequences of this action but at least you have the choice of keeping the other MFA related policies enabled and just keeping the Legacy Authentication policy disabled.

Security Defaults

In a recent article, Alex Weinert, Director of Identity Security at Microsoft, goes over the reasons for adding in Security Defaults. In the article, he goes over some of the attacks Microsoft sees and why they have been evolving their base security levels for customers. He also briefly mentions the Baseline policies with an indication that they were just one attempt at trying to secure customers but that they ultimately moved away from the Baseline policies based on customer feedback and their other learnings. Whatever the reason for the switch, at the end of February 2020, they got rid of the Baseline Conditional Access policies and replaced them with a new Directory property called Security Defaults. Really, it is just the same Baseline policies with one catch: it is an all or nothing switch. You won’t get to choose which of the policies you enable and which you don’t.

Enabling Security Defaults

The distinction is important for any organization that isn’t quite ready to invest in Conditional Access Policies for added security. If your organization has processes which utilize Legacy Authentication protocols (which include Basic Authentication for Remote PowerShell and SMTP for printers/scanners!) enabling the Security Defaults will break those processes. If you are a CSP using RPS with Basic Authentication for automated, non-interactive, connectivity to Exchange Online, you will need to make sure you have converted your processes to utilize Microsoft’s Secure Application Model. For your printers/scanners, you will need to utilize a relay capable of modern authentication or authentication via certificate or IP.


In lieu of paid for Conditional Access Policies, where you can customize policies and make exceptions, the new Security Defaults provide a simple and effective way of protecting your Azure AD instance. If you plan on enabling them, just be sure to understand that they block Legacy Authentication which could cause some issues with automated non-interactive connectivity or with your printers/scanners for those that utilize Basic Authentication with SMTP. If you utilize Exchange Online and have printers/scanners that fall into this category, consider setting up a relay with authentication based on certificate or IP (we will be going over this later as well).

If you are already using the Baseline Conditional Access Policies but picking and choosing among the four, be prepared to purchase licenses for Conditional Access Policies or be prepared to enable the entire set of them via Security Defaults.


04 Jun 2020
I’m New to Banking Technology – What Do I Need to Know?

I’m New to Banking Technology – What Do I Need to Know?

I’m New to Banking Technology – What Do I Need to Know?

The reality for the community banking industry is that often, institutions are limited in staff size, especially in IT. As a result, employees are sometimes placed in an IT role without any prior experience and they are forced to learn the “ins and outs” of information technology quickly to ensure that the institution stays in compliance and the IT environment is secure.

This can be a daunting task for a financial institution employee who’s been placed in an IT role for the first time. From our experience working with more than 600 community financial institutions, there are four key steps that someone who’s new to banking technology needs to know to quickly get up to speed on all things IT:

Step 1: Determine the Financial Institution’s Current State

When stepping into an IT role from another department, the first thing you must do is get a strong understanding of the current state of the institution and how the IT infrastructure is set up. Key questions include:

  • What does the IT infrastructure look like?
  • What technology is currently in place?
  • Is there hardware or software that is reaching end-of-life?
  • Are network schematics and data flow diagrams up to date and accurate?

Look at all the policies and procedures currently in place and understand what management has approved for the information technology program and how the environment is organized. It’s important to know exactly where the bank is from an IT perspective because without this knowledge you won’t be able to troubleshoot potential issues or plan strategically for where the financial institution needs to be to meet compliance guidelines.

Step 2: Review Vendor Relationships and Responsibilities

It is critical to know exactly who is responsible for each IT activity. Many community banks and credit unions use a variety of vendors, including core providers, cloud providers, managed services providers, and others. It’s important to understand which vendors are involved with all your hardware, software, and IT services and review the service level agreements (SLAs) which are typically found in the contract to be clear on what the vendor should be providing to the institution. This is crucial because if an issue arises you need to know if it is your responsibility to handle it internally or if you should reach out to a vendor for support. Make sure you are clear about what the institution’s vendors are responsible for, when to go to them for help, and which activities are your responsibility under the SLA.

Another key part of this role is vendor management. As a new IT admin, you have a shared responsibility for monitoring and managing the institution’s vendors and weighing the risks each one poses to the institution. To keep the network compliant and secure, you need to thoroughly evaluate potential vendors; identify critical vendors and services; implement an effective risk management process throughout the lifecycle of the vendor relationship, and report appropriately to senior management. Some key best practices include:

  • Developing plans that outline the institution’s strategy;
  • Identifying the inherent risks of the specific activity, and the residual, or remaining, risk after the application of controls;
  • Detailing how the institution selects, assesses, and oversees third-party providers;
  • Performing proper due diligence on all vendors;
  • Creating a contingency plan for terminating vendor relationships effectively; and
  • Producing clear documentation and reporting to meet all regulatory requirements.

Having a proactive plan in place will help you effectively manage vendors and have a clear understanding of the level of criticality and risk for each service provider. Properly vetting and managing vendors will reduce risk for the institution, while also ensuring compliance requirements are met successfully.

Step 3: Understand the Institution’s IT Organizational Structure

How IT roles are structured within a community bank or credit union varies by the institution, but many financial institutions have an IT administrator, information security officer (ISO), chief information officer (CIO), and an IT steering committee to support IT activities. It’s important to learn how the institution is set up and understand what the ISO and CIO are responsible for so you can work together to ensure the institution’s environment is operating securely and efficiently. It’s also important to make sure all ISO duties are separated from other IT roles at the institution to maintain compliance with FFIEC requirements.

At some point, every functional area of a bank or credit union touches IT in one way or another so understanding how every system, application, and functional area within the institution operates and relates back to IT enables you to help the staff by troubleshooting the different issues each department may experience.

Step 4. Review Recent Audits and Exams

Another way to determine the current state of the financial institution is to review all recent IT audits and exams. Determine if there were any findings or recommendations made by a regulatory agency and make sure that this has been addressed and remediated appropriately. With this information, you can tell if there are any current issues or pain points and start to make strategic plans or address specific issues as they arise.

Financial institutions are held accountable for FFIEC compliance and must manage regulatory activities including reporting effectively. New IT personnel should become familiar with FFIEC guidance and understand what is required to meet regulatory expectations and perform well on future audits and exams.

With these steps, new IT admins can gain a deeper understanding of information technology and what their key responsibilities are at the financial institution to ensure the community bank or credit union can successfully meet examiner expectations and keep operations running smoothly.

14 May 2020
Key Benefits of Cloud Infrastructure for Banking IT Operations

Key Benefits of Cloud Infrastructure for Banking IT Operations

Key Benefits of Cloud Infrastructure for Banking IT Operations

Cloud technology has been driving efficiency and innovation across many industries for years and today, many community banks and credit unions are adopting cloud services for their IT operations.

In a recent webinar, Safe Systems presented an overview of cloud infrastructure and the key benefits to financial institutions. Here are a few points to keep in mind if you’re thinking about implementing cloud services:

Data Centers

Cloud service providers, like Microsoft Azure or Amazon Web Services, have some of the best data centers in the world, providing space, power, cooling, and physical security. You no longer have to worry about the management burdens of an on-premise solution or co-location when your servers and applications are hosted in a secure cloud environment.

Lifecycle Management

The cost of server hardware does not end with its purchase. There are hidden costs of tracking which assets are still healthy, supported, and under warranty. Replacing aging equipment every few years often requires a complex project that impacts availability and takes time away from meeting more important objectives. With cloud services, you can eliminate lifecycle management of your server equipment, enabling you to focus your effort on higher-value projects that drive your business.


When you adopt cloud services, the availability of your critical application infrastructure and data is the responsibility of the cloud provider. The major cloud providers are able to attract and retain the best talent in the world to keep systems healthy and secure. They deliver your services from a highly resilient network of multiple data centers, vastly reducing your dependency on any single datacenter.


  • Experimentation
  • If your goal is to develop a specialized project for your institution, a platform like Microsoft Azure has many different services to make it easy for you to test scenarios or try new ideas without investing in hardware or navigating the justification and purchase order process. You simply visit the website, turn on a resource, and experiment. Later, you’re able to turn it off with no further commitment.

  • Fast Turnup and Fast Turndown
  • Cloud services enable you to get up and running fairly quickly in this new environment. Instead of having to order hardware and wait for it to be shipped or spend time setting up the solution, you can go from having an idea to having the solution turned on literally within a few minutes. Fast turndown is equally important. When you no longer need the solution, you can simply turn it off, and more importantly, the billing ends as well.

  • Elasticity
  • The elasticity of cloud service means that you can add capacity when you need it and remove expense when you don’t. For periodic computing tasks, like month-end processes, extra computing power can be added to your cloud services and then removed after the job is complete. This is more cost-effective than building an infrastructure that is sized for the busiest day of the year.

  • Serverless Functions
  • Lastly, large cloud providers have many advanced functions that can provide community banks and credit unions with new capabilities like serverless computing. Some workloads that traditionally required a dedicated server, like a Microsoft SQL database, may be able to move into a serverless alternative like Azure SQL. This creates the opportunity to start reducing the quantity of Windows Server instances that need to be patched and maintained.

Cloud infrastructure allows community banks and credit unions to reduce servers, internal infrastructure, and applications that would typically have to be hosted on-premises, in addition to the associated support each one requires. It also enables you to experiment and find the right services that fit your institution’s corporate strategy and IT objectives.

To learn more about cloud services, including cloud-based disaster recovery, watch our webinar recording, “The Cloud: Recovery and Resiliency is Just a Click Away.”

01 May 2020
Combating Business Email Compromise and Protecting Your Remote Workforce

Combating Business Email Compromise and Protecting Your Remote Workforce

Combating Business Email Compromise and Protecting Your Remote Workforce

Over the last two months, there have been more people working remotely than ever before, and with more being done outside the branch, financial institutions cannot rely on their usual firewall and anti-malware solutions to protect their staff. Today, the single most common attack used to target remote users is what is known as “business email compromise” (BEC).

Safe Systems hosted a live webinar earlier this month discussing how BEC works; the main techniques used in these types of attacks; and the cost-effective solutions needed to mitigate them. In case you missed it, here are a few key points from the webinar:

What is business email compromise and how does it work?

Business email compromise is a security exploit where an attacker targets an employee who has access to company funds or other non-public information and convinces the victim to transfer money into a bank account controlled by the attacker.

These attacks have two main categories:

  1. Phishing emails – this is just a spoofed email that seemingly comes from someone you trust within the organization (like the CFO or CEO) instructing an employee to wire money to a specific account.
  2. Account takeover – the attacker procures your real username and password and then logs into your mailbox where they are then able to send and receive emails at will from your actual account.

Using these attack methods, cybercriminals can commit many different types of fraud, including wire fraud, non-public information (NPI) theft, and spreading of malware.

There are also a number of different attack “types” that cybercriminals commonly use to take over accounts:

A single-stage attack is a social engineering email directing a user to complete a certain action. For example, an email may include a link that leads to a rogue website where the attacker is trying to capture login information. This is a fairly simple, one-step attack.

The more sophisticated variation on this type of attack is the multi-stage method. In this attack, we often see that instead of having a link in the email that goes to a suspicious website that could potentially be blocked by other security layers, attackers use a link in the email that goes to a highly trusted place like a Citrix share file or some other trusted site. If the user clicks the link, they’ve now stepped outside of any email security layers the institution might have in place. Most often these sites are SSL encrypted so this underscores the importance of having SSL inspection performed on your traffic to ensure links in emails do lead to legitimate, secure websites. The problem with this, however, is that it can be an increasingly difficult job for some financial institutions to implement and manage.

How Can Financial Institutions Defend Against These Threats?


The first line of defense against business email compromise is to stop the user from being exposed in the first place, and the single most effective measure financial institutions can implement is user training. It’s important for financial institutions to regularly conduct penetration testing and use security awareness training to educate their employees. Over the years, we’ve seen a distinct correlation between the frequency of user security awareness training and the success rate of phishing attacks. Some institutions leverage self-testing tools such as KnowBe4, but there are many other services that financial institutions can use to test their employees.


The second line of defense is to stop the user from causing damage. To mitigate the threat, financial institutions can use a variety of effective tools, including:

  • Email Filtering – a tool that filters out suspicious emails to ensure no spam, malicious content, or sensitive data makes it out of the institution unauthorized.
  • DNS Filtering – is the process of using the Domain Name System lookup to find the IP address of a website to block malicious websites and filter out harmful or inappropriate content.
  • URL Rewrite – if an email has a link, the system rewrites the destination of the link to go to a security company first before the real session is connected.
  • Multifactor Authentication – this tool requires more than one method of authentication to verify a user’s identity for a login or other transaction. The methods include something you know (pin); something you have (phone) and/or something you are (biometrics).

These are just a few of the tools that can help strengthen your institution’s security posture and ensure users do not fall victim to malicious attacks. However, if they do, it is critical to have a plan to respond.


The last line of defense is to stop the expansion of damages if a threat has occurred. In this case, financial institutions must conduct an investigation into the cyberattack and have thorough logs of their mail system to understand exactly what occurred; how far it has spread; and determine the next steps. Community banks and credit unions should have an incident response plan in place and perform regular tabletop testing to confirm the plan works and will be useful when a real attack occurs.

To learn more ways to protect your institution from business email compromise, watch our recorded webinar, “Business Email Compromise – Preventing the Biggest Risk from Remote Users.”

23 Apr 2020
Managing Banking IT Operations During a Pandemic: Your Top Questions Answered

Managing Banking IT Operations During a Pandemic: Your Top Questions Answered

Managing Banking IT Operations During a Pandemic: Your Top Questions Answered

For many financial institutions, it has been a challenge to keep IT operations moving efficiently during this pandemic. Since community banks and credit unions are considered an essential business, they are required to continue to serve customers and members. This can be difficult when employees are unavailable or are forced to work remotely from their homes for the first time. Many financial institutions have questions about how to efficiently manage their remote workforce, while keeping the institution secure and employees, customers, and members safe.

To address these questions, Safe Systems’ Information Security Officer, Chuck Copland, VP of Compliance Services, Tom Hinkel, and Chief Technology Officer, Brendan McGowan held a live panel discussion last week covering ways financial institutions can manage banking IT operations during a pandemic. In this blog, we’ll cover a few of the top questions from the panel:

1. How would you suggest making sure that remote access vendors are vetted quickly but thoroughly?

For many financial institutions, remote access was limited before the pandemic because this technology either didn’t support critical functions or wasn’t a priority at the time. Now, remote access is very important to continue business operations efficiently, and many community banks and credit unions are evaluating options for larger scale use. To do this effectively, you first need to consider all of the risks associated with remote access and the potential impact on your organization. This helps you get a quick baseline of the controls you’re going to require, which will then inform your vendor review.

While some institutions may be in a rush to get remote access tools up and running, it is important to stick to your normal vendor review process and take the time to thoroughly evaluate third-party risk. If you do have to sacrifice the integrity of your normal due diligence process and cut some corners to choose a vendor quickly, understand that there will be a resulting change in your institution’s risk appetite, or your acceptable risk. Make sure this is updated and that the executive management team including the Board sign off on the your new risk appetite.

2. What are some lessons learned about remote access for financial institutions during this pandemic?

It can be difficult to determine which remote access tool fits best with your institution’s unique security and regulatory needs. First, you should identify the best way for your staff to access the network whether it’s through a virtual private network (VPN) or an application for remote access, like a telecommute remote control tool. A VPN is a piece of software that lives on a computer that your user has at home — preferably a bank or a credit union asset and not their personal home PC.

When a user connects through a VPN tunnel, typically the computer gives access to the local network at the institution. With telecommute remote control tools, like LogMeIn and Splashtop, the user is working from a local computer at the office. These tools limit the abilities of the computer from interacting with the institution’s local network, often, making it a secure option for organizations that don’t want employees to have direct access to the network. Because each tool achieves a different goal, you will want to determine exactly what your team needs to conduct remote work efficiently, effectively, and securely.

There are also several collaboration tools and meeting tools to consider which can help different teams within your institution communicate and collaborate on projects internally and meet with each other or speak with external users outside of your organization.

What are you hearing from examiners? How are exams continuing during the pandemic?

We’re seeing that all examinations have either been pushed back to a later date or changed to a remote visit. In the climate that we are in, examiners are expecting institutions to make accommodations to customers that may be negatively affected by this pandemic and ensure they have access to other critical products and services.

But what happens when the dust settles, and we go back to a more normal set of circumstances? What will examiners expect then?

Most likely, we expect them to be looking for a mature “lessons learned” document that financial institutions create to show what they have learned over the course of this particular pandemic event. We can certainly see guidance changes coming out of this, with regulators having a new set of expectations for financial institutions going forward. Right now, we are all concerned with just getting through this challenging time but all financial institutions need to document what they are doing and the lessons they have learned along the way. They also need to create a report for the Board and the executive management team recommending any necessary changes to mitigate the impact of a pandemic, should one happen again in the future.

If you’d like to find out what other questions were answered during the live panel, watch our recorded webinar, “Ask Our Experts: Managing Banking IT Operations During a Pandemic.”

02 Apr 2020
Microsoft’s LDAP Security Update and the Impact on Financial Institutions Today

Make It or Break It: Microsoft’s LDAP Security Update and the Impact on Financial Institutions Today

Microsoft’s LDAP Security Update and the Impact on Financial Institutions Today

In January 2020, Microsoft announced it would release a security update on Windows that by default enables LDAP channel binding and LDAP signing hardening changes for Active Directory. LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is an open and cross platform protocol used for directory services authentication. LDAP provides the communication language that applications use to communicate with other Windows active directory (AD) servers which stores users, groups and passwords for many systems on an organization’s network. LDAP is the middle communication layer between the active directory and your business applications and systems.

LDAP channel binding and LDAP signing provide ways to increase the security for communications between LDAP clients and Active Directory domain controllers. However, there are a set of insecure default configurations for LDAP channel binding and LDAP signing on Active Directory domain controllers that let the LDAP communicate without enforcing secure LDAP channel binding and LDAP signing. Many organizations have not addressed this vulnerability by changing their default setting to make the LDAP more secure, so Microsoft is leading the charge to ensure network security for all users.

While originally slated for March 2020, Microsoft plans to release the update mid-year, giving organizations more time to proactively prepare for the change. This is because the patch will disable all insecure LDAP bindings, which has the potential to break many systems for several organizations. Financial institutions must look at their systems, determine insecure devices or applications, and fix them while there is still the option to switch back to the default setting.

The Problem

So why is Microsoft forcing this update on its users? The main concern is password protection. With Windows Server active directory, passwords are essentially allowed to be sent over the network in clear text (a non-TLS encrypted communication) by default. Microsoft’s patch is going to harden LDAP to essentially block the ability to send a password over the network using clear text. This is important because if a hacker is trying to intercept your organization’s passwords and encounters an insecure LDAP, they would be able to read the password and use this information to access your systems. LDAP needs to be hardened and changed from an insecure 0 to a secure 1 or 2 to ensure this doesn’t occur. When you harden LDAP, you’re improving the security posture of this protocol, so it has less vulnerabilities and less chances of being exploited.

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Remember this is an “all or nothing” setting. You either make it secure or you don’t, but there are many consequences tied to the latter. Once this update is released, if you send a communication in clear text, the server will block it from being authenticated. If you are unable to send the communication securely by leveraging hardened LDAP, then it will likely break and no longer perform that function. This can affect any client, device, application, or system at your financial institution that interacts with the Windows server and needs to be authenticated (e.g., scanners that scan-to-folder or enumerate an address book.)

The Solution

So, what can you do to get ahead of this impending patch? Financial institutions can make this change early before the patch is released, by changing the registry setting forcing the LDAP to be more secure and causing everything that is going to break to break. Then they can change the setting back and fix whatever is broken. Again, the affected systems could be anything that authenticates with AD that uses the LDAP protocol. This is a process of trial and error and will require a lot of manual investigation to determine potential breaks.

A good place to start is to enable additional logging and collect all of your event logs and review the event IDs to see if you are affected. Start by looking for event ID 2889, 2886, and 2887 in your directory service log. If event ID 2886 is present, it indicates that LDAP signing is not being enforced by your domain controller. Event ID 2887 occurs every 24 hours and reports how many unsigned and clear text binds have occurred over the network. Then, event ID 2889 helps determine which IP addresses and accounts are making insecure LDAP channel binding requests so you can identify the correct devices and applications to fix. You can also review additional event IDs to gather more information or use a PowerShell command to help you track down insecure LDAP binding before the deadline later this year. If you have a managed services provider, they will be able to help you find the right solution.